Ghana: Invite the Unexpected
As companies consider their strategies for future growth, many are entering new countries in Africa and expanding their existing operations on this rapidly changing continent. This means that employees from other world regions will increasingly be working with African counterparts, either side-by-side or on virtual teams, and will need to understand the local environment in each country where they are doing business. Ghana, for instance, is a favored place for many firms to expand due to its relatively stable government and a healthy economy. However, this location, too, presents business challenges that some foreigners are likely to find surprising.
The Unexpected, Example #1: Land Ownership
Most companies need to buy or lease property in order to grow, especially those that want to build factories, warehouses, or larger office facilities. Yet the availability and security of land itself can be a significant obstacle to setting up business operations in Ghana. With the exception of property legally acquired by the government, much of the country’s land is controlled by tribal chiefs with no official legal backing. In these areas, known as “Stool or Skin Lands” (the Stool is the chief’s traditional seat of power), possession is based on ancestral lineage over many generations. This often leads to disputes regarding ownership. Multiple parties may lay claim to the same piece of land, so the firm attempting to lease or purchase it may encounter more than one demand for payment. 
Foreign companies need to recognize that a contractual agreement with one alleged landowner may not be sufficient and that other owners may appear. There are several steps they can take to ensure that properties they rent or buy are not subject to ownership disputes. Lands that were previously acquired by the government or by properly registered developers are usually safe. There is also a Land Title Registry that can be consulted to ensure that the seller is the rightful owner and a Land Registration process that legitimizes transactions. Extra attention to these matters at an early stage is important to ensure that a firm’s ambitious plans for growth are not entangled from the beginning in an expensive morass of disputed claims.
The Unexpected, Example #2: Funerals
Business relationships in Ghana include ceremonial events that might elsewhere be regarded as more personal than professional. Indeed, funerals are a significant part of the country’s social and business fabric. Although this might seem incomprehensible to foreigners (and even to some Ghanaians), the end of life appears to be one of the most ‘celebrated’ life events. It is expected that business colleagues will attend and/or provide a donation for funerals, not just for people who are close associates, but also for their family members. If a client’s relative passes away, it is common to express condolences by attending the funeral and giving a donation and to join in the celebratory activities. Foreigners are not necessarily expected to stay throughout the celebrations; however, unless the burial is in a faraway hometown, it is a good idea to at least put in an appearance, and to give a donation in any case. It is also common to visit the family to convey one’s sympathies before the funeral, as another Ghanaian custom is that it takes longer to bury the dead. A period of four to six weeks is the norm, except for Muslims, who bury their dead within a day.
Foreigners who aspire to build strong business relationships with Ghanaian colleagues should not only be prepared to attend funerals for co-workers’ relatives but also to celebrate! It is possible for some weekends to include one or more funeral events that honor the deceased with feasting, photographs, loud music, and dancing, with fellow celebrants who range from next of kin to others who may not have even known the deceased directly but have come to join the party. Social status and honor for the deceased are heightened by the size of the festivities, so the more the merrier.
An initial step towards success in global markets is to “invite the unexpected,” cultivating the discipline of anticipating and seeking out these kinds of unexpected challenges in unfamiliar markets. The next step is frameshifting, or adjusting behavior to address potential obstacles proactively based on new points of reference. Those who aspire to global leadership roles and practice these disciplines regularly will begin to see and hear more accounts that help to increase their knowledge—a bit like the couple in love who notice others in a similar state. They will notice with interest an article from the BBC entitled “Ghana Chiefs’ Land Rows Spook Investors,”  and learn enough about the topic to avoid embarrassing snafus. Or they will see a piece from the New York Times about Ghanaian funerals—”Dance, Laugh, Drink. Save the Date: It’s a Ghanaian Funeral”—and not dismiss it as an odd reversal of common sense, but quickly agree to make an appearance when invited in order to find out what the participant meant who said, “To us it’s a celebration” rather than a place of sadness.  Each of these leadership behaviors helps to build understanding, empathy, flexibility, confidence, and an effective path of entry into the culture.
 See, Gundling, Ernest, Hogan, Terry, and Cvitkovich, Karen, “What is Global Leadership?” Boston: Nicholas Brealey, 2011.